Date Post :  12-01-2015

Brunei Darussalam

This link is to all the information about the Brunei dollar:


            The Brunei dollar was introduced in 1967 i.e. much before the country gained its independence. Brunei currency board was established to manage the currency flow in the country with the issuance of the Currency Act. The currency board has the sole authority to manage and issue currency notes as well coinage in the currency. Brunei dollar banknotes are issued in 9 denominations that are $1, $5, $10, $25, $50, $100, $500, $1,000 and $10,000. The banknotes in circulation comprise of both paper currency notes as well polymer currency notes, the latter being used for the smaller denominations of currency i.e. $1, $5 and $10 due to their high usage. The sizes of these notes vary according to the value they possess; lesser value gets the smaller size. The currency notes have different colors and the backside design on the notes depict various landscapes relating to the identity of the country. The following list mentions the different colors and landscapes for different currency notes

$1 (Blue, yellow and green) - Rainforest waterfall

$ 5 (Green, yellow and blue) - Rainforest floor

$10 (Red, yellow and brown) - Rainforest canopy

$25 (Purple, brown, green and light orange) - Crowning ceremony and the royal crown

$50 (Brown, green and blue) - Oilrig

$100 (Blue and orange) - Brunei international airport

$500 (Orange and brown) - Padian woman paddling her boat

$1000 (Brown) - Kampong Ayer and Istana Nurul Iman

$10000 (Green) - Bandar Seri Begawan

Smaller values of currency are issued in the form of coins. Coinage, currently, is being issued in 5 denominations i.e. 1, 5, 10, 20 and 50 sen. The old $1 coin is still accepted as a legal tender in Brunei though it is not minted now. The obverse sides of the coins in 3 different series have engraved portraits of different sultans of the state, i.e. the 1967 issue possess the image of late Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddien Sa’adul Khairi Waddien , the 1968 and 1993 issues have the image of Sultan Haji Hassanal Bolkiah Mu’izzaddin Waddaulah Sultan and Yang Di-Pertuan of Brunei Darussalam. The reverse sides of the coins have designs that are symbolic as mentioned in the following list

1 sen - local design representing a bird

5 sen - tree shaped design representing a bird

10 sen - claw shaped design representing an animal

20 sen - vertical pattern representing a tree

50 sen - crest of Negara Brunei Darussalam

The usage of coinage in Brunei dollar is controlled by the following regulations

Coins of denominations lesser than 50 sen cannot be used for paying off an amount exceeding $2

Coins of denominations 50 sen and $1 cannot be used for paying off an amount exceeding $10

Coins of denominations greater than $1 can be used for paying off any amount

Republic of the Union of Myanmar

This link is to all the information about the Burmese Kyat:


The kyat was a denomination of both silver and gold coinages inBurmauntil 1889. It was divided into 20pe, each of 4pya, with themuandmatworth 2 and 4 pe, respectively. Nominally, 16 silver kyat equal 1 gold kyat. The silver kyat was equivalent to theIndian rupee, which replaced the kyat after Burma was conquered by the British

In 1966, all coins were redesigned to feature Aung San on the obverse and were all changed in composition to aluminum. Furthermore, the coins were slightly reduced in size. However, they retained the same shapes and overall appearance of the previous series of coins. These were circulated until being discontinued in 1983.

In 1983 a new series of coins was issued in bronze or brass 5, 10, 25, 50 pyas and cupro-nickel 1 kyat. Although the 25 pyas was initially round, it was later redesigned as hexagonal due to size and appearance confusions with the 10 and 50 pyas. These would be the last official series of coins to be issued under the name of "Burma."

1 pya coins were last minted in 1966, with the 5 and 25 pyas last minted in 1987 and the 10 and 50 pyas in 1991.

In 1999, a new series of coins was issued in denominations of bronze 1 kyat, brass 5 and 10 kyats, and cupro-nickel 50 and 100 kyats under the name "Central Bank of Myanmar." These are also the first coins of Burma to depict Latin letters. These coins were intended for vendors and services as an alternative to large amounts of worn out, low denomination banknotes. High inflation has since pushed these coins out of circulation.

In late 2008, the Myanmar government announced that new 50 and 100 kyat coins would be issued. According to newspaper articles, the new 50 kyat coin would be made of copper, with the usual Burmese lion on the obverse and the Lotus Fountain fromNaypyidawon the reverse. The 100 Kyat coin would be of cupro-nickel and depict the Burmese lion on the obverse and the value on the reverse.


In 1972, the Union of Burma Bank took over note issuance, with notes introduced between 1972 and 1979 for 1, 5, 10, 25, 50 and 100 kyats. The notes were printed by the Security Printing Works in Wazi, Upper Burma (established c. 1972) under the technical direction of the German firm Giesecke & Devrient. On November 3, 1985, the 25-, 50-, and 100-kyat notes were demonetized without warning, though the public was allowed to exchange limited amounts of the old notes for new ones. All other denominations then in circulation remainedlegal tender. On November 10, 1985, 75-kyat notes were introduced, the odd denomination possibly chosen because of dictatorNe Win's predilection fornumerology; the 75-kyat note was supposedly introduced to commemorate his 75th birthday. It was followed by the introduction of 15- and 35- kyat notes on August 1, 1986.

Only two years later, on September 5, 1987, the government demonetized the 25-, 35-, and 75-kyat notes without warning or compensation, rendering some 75% of the country's currency worthless. On September 22, 1987, banknotes for 45 and 90 kyat were introduced, both of which incorporated Ne Win's favorite number, nine. The resulting economic disturbances led to serious and eventually a coup d'état in 1988 by General.

Following the change of the country's name to Myanmar on June 20, 1989, new notes began to be issued, but returning to more useful or practical denominations. This time, the old notes were not demonetized, but simply allowed to fall into disuse through inflation as well as wear and tear. On March 1, 1990, 1-kyat notes were issued, followed by 200-kyat notes on March 27, 1990. On March 27, 1994, notes for 50 pya, 20, 50, 100, and 500 kyats were issued, followed, on May 1, 1995, by new 5- and 10-kyat notes. 1,000-kyat notes were introduced in November 1998.

In 2003, rumours of another pending demonetization swept through the country, resulting in the junta issuing official denials, but this time the demonetization did not materialize. In 2004, the sizes of the 200, 500, and 1,000 kyats were reduced in size (to make all Myanma banknotes uniform in size) but larger notes remain in circulation. 50 pya, 1, and 5 kyat banknotes are now rarely seen, because of their low value.

On October 1, 2009, 5,000-kyat banknotes were issued measuring 150 x 70 mm. Along the top front is writtenCentral Bank of Myanmarin Burmese, and in the center is a white elephant. On the back is a picture of the Central Bank of Myanmar with "FIVE THOUSAND KYATS 5000" written in English. This new denomination is five times larger than the previous largest denomination. Public response has been mixed, with some welcoming a higher value note reducing the number of banknotes which need to be carried. Other responses have suggested a widespread fear that this will simply fuel the current rate of inflation, which was supported by a jump in the black market exchange rates following the public announcement of this change.

On the 9th of June, 2012, the Central Bank announced that 10,000-kyat notes would be introduced into the circulation to better facilitate financial transactions in a largely cash-oriented economy. They were issued on June 15, 2012

Kingdom of Cambodia


Cambodia’s currency is the រៀល [riel] (KHR, ) – named after the small fish used for making the ever so pungent Prahoc.

The riel comes in notes of the following denominations: 50, 100, 200, 500, 1,000, 2,000, 5,000, 10.000, 20,000 and 50.000.

There are no riel coins in circulation.

The exchange rate to the US dollar is around 4000 (read more about exchange rates in our banking section).


50 riel

Front: Preah Vihear temple (Preah Vihear)

Back: Dam

100 riel

Front: Independence Monument (Phnom Penh)

Back: School

500 riel

Front: Angkor Wat (Angkor Wat)

Back: Bridge over Mekong River (Kampong Cham)

1,000 riel

New 1,000 riel note in commemoration of the late King (2013):

Front: Norodom Sihanouk (former King of Cambodia)

Back: Royal procession of former King Norodom Sihanouk’s funeral

Pre-2013, still in circulation:

Front: Southern gate at Bayon (Angkor Wat)

Back: Port of Kampong Som (Sihanoukville)

2,000 riel

New 2,000 riel note in commemoration of 60 years of Cambodian independence (2013):

Front: Norodom Sihanouk (former King of Cambodia) and a naga (mythical snake)

Back: former King Norodom Sihanouk’s with two soldiers and the Independence monument

Pre-2013, still in circulation:

Front: Preah Vihear temple (Preah Vihear)

Back: Angkor Wat and Field Workers (Angkor Wat)

5,000 riel

Front: Norodom Sihanouk (former King of Cambodia)

Back: Bridge of Kampong Kdei (Siem Reap Province)

10,000 riel

Front: Norodom Sihanouk (former King of Cambodia)

Back: Royal Palace (Phnom Penh)

20,000 riel

Front: Norodom Sihamoni (King of Cambodia)

Back: Angkor Wat, Four faces of the Bodhisattva Avalokitesvara (Angkor Wat)

50,000 riel

Front: Norodom Sihanouk (former King of Cambodia)

Back: Angkor Wat (Angkor Wat)

100,000 riel

New 100,000 issued in 2013: I have not yet come across it. I will post an image as soon as I do.

Front: late King Father Norodom Sihanouk and Queen Mother Norodom Monineath

Back: the two monarchs and their current King Norodom Sihamoni

Pre-2013: still in circulation, but rare

Front: Norodom Sihanouk (former King of Cambodia) and Monineath Sihanouk (former Queen of Cambodia)

Back: Norodom Sihanouk and Monineath Sihanouk receiving homage of the people

Republic of Indonesia

This link is to all the information about the Indonesian Rupiah:

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The current rupiah consists of coins from 50 rupiah up to 1000 rupiah (1 rupiah are officially legal tender but are effectively worthless and are not circulated), and from banknotes of 1000 rupiah up to 100,000 rupiah. With US$1 worth 12,150 rupiah (August 2014), the largest Indonesian banknote is therefore worth approximately US$8.25.


There are presently two series of coins in circulation:aluminium,bronzeand bi-metallic coins from 1991–1998 and light-weight aluminium coins from 1999 onwards. Due to the low value and general shortage of small denomination coins (below 100 rupiah), it is common to have amounts rounded up (or down) or to receive sweets in lieu of the last few rupiah of change in supermarkets and stores.


Currently circulating Indonesian banknotes date from 2000 (1000 rupiah), 2001 (5000 rupiah), 2004 (20,000 and 100,000) rupiah, 2005 (10,000 and 50,000 rupiah), 2009 (the new denomination of 2000 rupiah), 2010 (revised version of the 10,000 rupiah), and 2011 (revised versions of the 20,000, 50,000 and 100,000 rupiah). The 1998–1999 notes have no longer been legal tender since 31 January 2008 (but will be exchangeable until 31 January 2018 at Bank Indonesia). Earlier notes are also no longer legal tender, due to the lack of security features and association with theSuhartoregime[citation needed], but could be exchanged in Bank Indonesia offices until August 20, 2010.[4]

As the smallest current note is worth approximatelyUS$0.10, even small transactions such as bus fares are typically conducted with notes, and the 1,000 rupiah note is far more common than the 1,000 rupiah coin. The government initially announced that this would change, with a 2000 rupiah note to replace the 1000 rupiah, with that denomination replaced by a coinAfter a long delay, this proposal was revised so that the 2000 rupiah banknotes was launched by BI (Bank Indonesia) on 9 July 2009, with the banknotes circulating as legal tender from 10 July 2009, but without withdrawing the 1000 rupiah note.

Due to the low value of the (older series) notes below 1000 rupiah, although they are no longer being circulated, some remain in use in increasingly poor condition, as low denomination 'uang pasar' (literallymarket money), outside the banking system for use in informal transactions.

Lao People’s Democratic Republic

This link is to all the information about the Laos Kip:

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Thekip (Lao:ກີບ;code:LAK;sign: orN; Official Name: ເງີນກີບລາວ, lit. "Currency Lao Kip") is thecurrencyofLaossince 1952. One kip is divided into 100att (ອັດ).

Free Lao Kip (1946)

In 1945–1946, the Free Lao government in Vientiane issued a series of paper money in denominations of 10, 20 and 50 att and 10 kip before the French authorities took control of the region.

Royal kip (1952)

The kip was reintroduced in 1952, replacing the French Indochinese piastre at par. The kip (also called a piastre in French) was sub-divided into 100 att (Lao: ອັດ) or cents (French: Centimes).


Coins were issued in denominations of 10, 20 and 50 att or cents with French and Lao inscriptions. All were struck in aluminium and had a hole in the centre, like the Chinese cash coins. The only year of issue was 1952.


100 kip, 1957 issue

In 1953, the Laos branch of the Institut d'Emission des Etats du Cambodge, du Laos et du Vietnam issued notes dual denominated in piastre and kip. At the same time, the two other branches had similar arrangement with the riel in Cambodia and the đồng in South Vietnam. There were notes for 1, 5, 100 and 100 kip/piastres.

In 1957, the government issued notes denominated solely in kip. The notes were for 1, 5, 10, 20 and 50 kip printed by the Security Banknote Company, 100 kip printed by the Banque de France and a commemorative 500 kip printed by Thomas De la Rue. 1 and 5 kip notes printed by Bradbury & Wilkinson, and a 10 kip by De la Rue were introduced by 1962.

In 1963, 20, 50, 200 and 1000 kip notes were added, all printed by De la Rue. These were followed by 100, 500 and 5000 kip notes in 1974–75, again by De La Rue. A 1975 10 kip by Bradbury & Wilkinson and a 1000 kip by De la Rue were printed but not circulated.

Pathet Lao kip (1976)

The Pathet Lao kip was introduced some time before 1976 in the areas which were under the control of the Pathet Lao. Banknote denominations of 1, 10, 20, 50, 100, 200 and 500 kip were issued. The notes were printed in China.

In 1976, the Pathet Lao kip replaced the Royal kip throughout Laos following the Pathet Lao's take over of the country. The exchange rate between the two kip was 1 Pathet Lao kip = 20 royal kip.

Lao PDR kip (1979)

On 16 December 1979, the old Pathet Lao “Liberation” kip was replaced by the new Lao kip at a rate of 100 to 1.


Coins were again issued in Laos for the first time in 28 years in 1980 with denominations of 10, 20 and 50 att, with each being struck in aluminum and depicting the state emblem on the obverse and agricultural themes on the reverse. These were followed by commemorative 1, 5, 10, 20 and 50 kip in 1985 for the 10 year anniversary of the Lao People's Democratic Republic. However, due to the economic toll of the Soviet collapse in 1991 and the persistence of chronic inflation there are no coins currently in circulation in Laos.


In 1979, banknotes were introduced in denominations of 1, 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 kip. 500 kip notes were added in 1988, followed by 1000 kip in 1992, 2000 and 5000 kip in 1997, 10,000 and 20,000 kip in 2002 and 50,000 kip on January 17, 2006 (although dated 2004). On November 15, 2010 a 100,000 kip banknote was issued to commemorate the 450th anniversary of the founding of the capital, Vientiane and the 35th anniversary of the establishment of the Lao People's Democratic Republic.

The Bank of Laos governor has made an announcement on January 25, 2012 that Bank of Laos is going to issue 100,000 Kip banknotes as a regular issue on February 1, 2012 (although dated 2011) as the measure to encourage Lao people to use the national currency instead of U.S. dollars and Thai baht.


This link is to all the information about the Malaysian Ringgit:

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

"MYR" redirects here. For other uses, see MYR (disambiguation).

"Ringgit" redirects here. For other uses, see Ringgit (disambiguation)

The Malaysian ringgit (plural: ringgit; symbol: RM; currency code: MYR; formerly the Malaysian dollar) is the currency of Malaysia. It is divided into 100 sen (cents). The ringgit is issued by the Bank Negara Malaysia.

On 21 July 2005, Bank Negara announced the end of the peg to the US dollar immediately afterChina's announcement of the end of therenminbipeg to the US dollar.According to Bank Negara, Malaysia allows the ringgit to operate in a managedfloatagainst several major currencies. This has resulted in the value of the ringgit rising closer to its perceived market value, although Bank Negara has intervened in financial markets to maintain stability in the trading level of the ringgit. This task is made easier by the fact that the ringgit has remained non-tradable[21]outside of Malaysia since 1998, which coincided with its pegging to the US dollar, a restriction that was not removed when it was de-pegged in July 2005.

Following the end of the currency peg, the ringgitappreciatedto as high as 3.16 to the US dollar in April 2008. The ringgit had also enjoyed a period of appreciation against theHong Kong dollar(HKD) (from 0.49 to 0.44 to the MYR)[22]and therenminbi(CNY) (0.46 to 0.45 to the MYR)[23]as recently as May 2008.

Political uncertainty followingthe country's 2008 general electionand the2008 Permatang Pauh by-election, fallingoil prices, and the lack of intervention by Bank Negara to increase already lowinterest rates(which remained at 3.5% since April 2006)led to a slight fall of the ringgit's value against the US dollar between May and July 2008, followed by a sharper drop between August and September of the same year. As a result, the US dollar appreciated significantly to close at 3.43 to the MYR as of 4 September 2008, while other major currencies, including the renminbi and Hong Kong dollar, follow suit. The drop brings the ringgit to its weakest since 24 September 2007, and ranks it as the second worst performing Southeast Asian currency between June 2008 and September 2008.As of 5 August 2012, Malaysia ringgit stands at USD 1 = MYR 3.1730

The Republic of the Philippines

This link is to all the information about the Philippine Peso:

Current economy

Based on the current price of gold, the Philippine peso has now lost 99.9328% of its original 1903–1949 value. As of December 22, 2010, it takes ₱2,933.07 modern pesos to equal the intrinsicpurchasing power parityof the 1903–1949 Philippine Commonwealth peso, as per its legal definition: 12.9grainsof pure gold (or 0.026875XAU).


Main article: Coins of the Philippine peso

A limited-edition one peso coin issued to commemorate the 150th anniversary of the birth of José Rizal.

The American government deemed it more economical and convenient to mint silver coins in the Philippines, hence, the re-opening of the Manila Mint in 1920, which produced coins until the Commonwealth Era.

In 1937, coin designs were changed to reflect the establishment of the Commonwealth. During the Second World War, no coins were minted from 1942 to 1943 due to the Japanese Occupation. Minting resumed in 1944, including production of 50 centavos coins. Due to the large number of coins issued between 1944 and 1947, coins were not minted again until 1958.

In 1958, new coinage entirely of base metal was introduced, consisting of bronze 1 centavo, brass 5 centavos and nickel-brass 10, 25 and 50 centavos. In 1967, the coinage was altered to reflect the use of Filipino names for the currency units. 1-peso coins were introduced in 1972. In 1975, the Ang Bagong Lipunan Series was introduced with a new 5-peso coin included. Aluminium replaced bronze, and cupro-nickel replaced nickel-brass that year. The Flora and Fauna series was introduced in 1983 which included 2-peso coins. The sizes of the coins were reduced in 1991, with production of 50-centavo and 2-peso coins ceasing in 1994. The current series of coins was introduced in 1995, with 10-peso coins added in 2000.

Denominations below 1 peso are still issued but are not in wide use. In December 2008, House Resolution No. 898 was proposed to call for the retirement and demonetization of all coins less than one peso due to the high cost of manufacturing these coins.


Main article: Banknotes of the Philippine peso

Philippine five peso bill (Obverse)

Philippine five peso bill before being replaced by coins.

In 1949, the Central Bank of the Philippines took over paper money issue. Its first notes were overprints on the Victory Treasury Certificates. These were followed in 1951 by regular issues in denominations of 5, 10, 20 and 50 centavos, 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 200 and 500 pesos. The centavo notes (except for the 50-centavo note, which would be later known into the half-peso note) were discontinued in 1958 when the English Series coins were first minted.

In 1967, the CBP adopted the Filipino language on its currency, using the name Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas, and in 1969 introduced the "Pilipino Series" of notes in denominations of 1, 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 pesos. The "Ang Bagong Lipunan Series" was introduced in 1973 and included 2-peso notes. A radical change occurred in 1985, when the CBP issued the "New Design Series" with 500-peso notes introduced in 1987, 1000-peso notes (for the first time) in 1991 and 200-peso notes in 2002.

New Design/BSP Banknote series

Main article: New Design series

The "New Design Series" was the name used to refer to Philippine banknotes issued from 1985 to 1993; it was then renamed into the "BSP series" due to the re-establishment of Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas from 1993 to 2010. It was succeeded by the "New Generation banknotes" issued on December 16, 2010. Until 2013 the existing banknotes are still in print. Existing banknotes will remain legal tender until the start of the demonetization process from January 1, 2015 to December 31, 2016, and on January 1, 2017, will no longer be legal tender.

New Generation Currency

Philippine twenty peso bill (Obverse)

Philippine twenty peso bill showing Manuel L. Quezon in the obverse.

In 2009 the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas (BSP) announced that has launched a massive redesign for current banknotes and coins to further enhance security features and improve durability.[19] The members of the numismatic committee include BSP Deputy Governor Diwa Guinigundo and Ambeth Ocampo, Chairman of the National Historical Institute. The new banknote designs feature famous Filipinos and iconic natural wonders. Philippine national symbols will be depicted on coins. The BSP started releasing the initial batch of new banknotes in December 2010 and new coins was introduced in 2012. Current banknotes will remain legal tender for at least three years exactly in December 2013.

Several, albeit disputable, errors have been discovered on banknotes of the New Generation series and have become the subject of ridicule in social networking sites. Among these are the exclusion of Batanes from the Philippine map on the reverse of all denominations, the mislocation of the Puerto Princesa Subterranean Underground River on the reverse of the 500-peso bill and the Tubbataha Reef on the 1000-peso bill, and the incorrect coloring on the beak and feathers of the blue-naped parrot on the 500-peso bill,[20][21] but these were eventually realized to be due to the color limitations of intaglio printing.[22] The scientific names of the animals featured on the reverse sides of all banknotes were incorrectly rendered as well.

Republic of Singapore

This link is to all the information about the Singapore Dollar:

The processes involved in coin production can be broken down into three main parts: producing the blanks, creating the coinage tools and striking the coins.

Production of blanks

Blanking is the process of producing coin blanks, which will then be minted. Metal sheets are fed through a press, which punches out blank round discs of metal. In the case of numismatic coins, precious metals such as silver are used to create the coin blanks. These blanks go through a meticulous polishing process prior to minting.

Creation of coinage tools

Circulation coins are produced to meet day-to-day cash transactions. Numismatic coins, on the other hand, are issued for the purpose of commemorating significant national events and to cater to collectors’ interests. These coins, being legal tender, should be dignified and not degrade the country's currency. Hence, the coin themes are carefully reviewed before the coin design artist finalises the design artwork. Once the coin themes are finalised and approved, the details of the artwork designs are replicated on a plaster mould at several times the diameter of the intended coin by a sculptor/engraver. The design is subsequently duplicated from the plaster mould using special silicon rubber material, to form a rubber mould.

Finally, the design is reproduced onto an epoxy mould. The epoxy mould is examined for imperfections to detect for flaws at this stage. Following this, the epoxy mould goes through a curing process to strengthen it. This process requires optimum precision since a mould that is too soft would be too weak, and one that is too hard would be brittle.

Next, the master dies are produced in the pantograph process. The designs on the epoxy mould will be reduced and “traced” onto the master die, which bears the same diameter as the coins to be minted. The master die is a critical coinage tool, as it is used to reproduce many working dies that is to be used during coin production.

Working dies are created in an extremely high pressure squeezing process called hobbing. These working dies are then heat-treated and polished prior to the coin striking process.

Minting of coin blanks

The minting process follows by having the designs of the working dies struck onto the blanks, turning them into coins.

Socialist Republic of Vietnam

First đồng

In 1978, aluminium coins (dated 1976), were introduced in denominations of 1, 2, and 5 hào and 1 đồng. The coins were minted by the Berlin mint in theGerman Democratic Republicand bear the state crest on the obverse and denomination on the reverse. Due tochronic inflation, these coins lost all their relevant value and no coins circulated for many years after this series.

Second đồng

Commemorative Issues

Commemorative coins in copper, brass, copper-nickel, silver, and gold have been issued since 1986, but none of these have ever been used in circulation.

The State Bank of Vietnam resumed issuing coins on December

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